Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal
Colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being used as drug delivery vehicles and radiation dose enhancers in cancer therapy.Oxygen concentration in human tumours is highly heterogeneous with many regions at very low levels of oxygen (hypoxia).Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data.We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics.The ultimate or fundamental goal of nanoparticle (NP) based platforms is the successful targeted delivery and monitoring of therapeutics to tumors, while causing minimal damage to normal tissue and side effects to the patient.Among other NPs, colloidal gold NPs (GNPs) are being explored as a model NP-system for cancer research due to their ability to act as both a radiosensitizer and drug carrier in cancer therapy ,  and .
GNPs of size 50 nm showed the highest uptake under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Hyperspectral images of cells incubated with GNPs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, respectively.
We used GNPs of diameter 15, 50, and 74 nm, and carried out our experiment under 0.2% (hypoxic) and 21% (normoxic) oxygen levels using MCF-7 and He La cells.
Our results showed that NPs of size 50 nm had the highest uptake following prolonged exposure to hypoxia.
In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly.
We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell.
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