Index fossils and relative dating
Fossils provide us with our only direct record of prehistoric life.Studying them can help us to reconstruct the anatomy, behaviour and evolution of long-extinct organisms.
2) and document its environmental tolerance, its relationship with the environment (its Miocene (5 million to 23 million years ago) of the Rhine area of Germany.
For interpreting climate signals, there are two parts of the plant that are especially useful: leaves and wood.
CLAMP is a statistical technique for decoding climatic signals from the Jack Wolfe (1936–2005), who studied the physiognomic features of leaves from modern flowering plants and correlated them with climate for different communities across the globe.
The modern living relatives of these fossils are no longer found in Europe, but in the warm, humid swamps of Mississippi.
We can infer that the climate of Germany during the Miocene was much wetter and hotter than it is today.
Like all organisms, plants have been forced to adapt to their surroundings in order to survive, and these adaptations may be recorded in their fossilized remains.