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By 1900, Freud had theorised that dreams had symbolic significance, and generally were specific to the dreamer.Freud formulated his second psychological theory— which hypothesises that the unconscious has or is a "primary process" consisting of symbolic and condensed thoughts, and a "secondary process" of logical, conscious thoughts.Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms.Freud's first theory to explain hysterical symptoms was presented in Studies on Hysteria (1895), co-authored with his mentor the distinguished physician Josef Breuer, which was generally seen as the birth of psychoanalysis.This theory was published in his 1900 book, The Interpretation of Dreams.
in later accounts he claimed that they had told him that they had been sexually abused in infancy.
The work was based on Breuer's treatment of Bertha Pappenheim, referred to in case studies by the pseudonym "Anna O.", treatment which Pappenheim herself had dubbed the "talking cure".
Breuer wrote that many factors that could result in such symptoms, including various types of emotional trauma, and he also credited work by others such as Pierre Janet; while Freud contended that at the root of hysterical symptoms were repressed memories of distressing occurrences, almost always having direct or indirect sexual associations.
Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others.
Over time, psychoanalysis has been revised and developed in different directions.
Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms.